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 Wanta | Black Swan, White Hat: intro / chapters 1 – 6

Note: By the way, I am currently reading this biography of Leo Wanta and it is an excellent resource to those wanting to know a little history that very few will ever research. Wanta was involved in its writing.

Angel Lucci


Cognitive Dissonance

The Theory

Almost half a century ago social psychologist Leon Festinger developed the cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957). The theory has obviously stood the test of time in that it is mentioned in most general and social psychology textbooks today. The theory is somewhat counterintuitive and, in fact, fits into a category of counterintuitive social psychology theories sometimes referred to as action-opinion theories. The fundamental characteristic of action opinion theories is that they propose that actions can influence subsequent beliefs and attitudes. This is counterintuitive in that it would seem logical that our actions are the result of our beliefs/attitudes, not the cause of them. However, on further examination these types of theories have great intuitive appeal in that the theories, particularly cognitive dissonance, address the pervasive human tendency to rationalize.

Cognitive dissonance theory is based on three fundamental assumptions (see Figure 1).

  1. Humans are sensitive to inconsistencies between actions and beliefs.
  • According to the theory, we all recognize, at some level, when we are acting in a way that is inconsistent with our beliefs/attitudes/opinions. In effect, there is a built in alarm that goes off when we notice such an inconsistency, whether we like it or not. For example, if you have a belief that it is wrong to cheat, yet you find yourself cheating on a test, you will notice and be affected by this inconsistency.
  1. Recognition of this inconsistency will cause dissonance, and will motivate an individual to resolve the dissonance.
  • Once you recognize that you have violated one of your principles, according to this theory, you won’t just say “oh well”. You will feel some sort of mental anguish about this. The degree of dissonance, of course, will vary with the importance of your belief/attitude/principle and with the degree of inconsistency between your behavior and this belief. In any case, according to the theory, the greater the dissonance the more you will be motivated to resolve it.


  1. Dissonance will be resolved in one of three basic ways:
    1. Change beliefs
      • Perhaps the simplest way to resolve dissonance between actions and beliefs is simply to change your beliefs. You could, of course, just decide that cheating is o.k. This would take care of any dissonance. However, if the belief is fundamental and important to you such a course of action is unlikely. Moreover, our basic beliefs and attitudes are pretty stable, and people don’t just go around changing basic beliefs/attitudes/opinions all the time, since we rely a lot on our world view in predicting events and organizing our thoughts. Therefore, though this is the simplest option for resolving dissonance it’s probably not the most common.
    2. Change actions
      • A second option would be to make sure that you never do this action again. Lord knows that guilt and anxiety can be motivators for changing behavior. So, you may say to yourself that you will never cheat on a test again, and this may aid in resolving the dissonance. However, aversive conditioning (i.e., guilt/anxiety) can often be a pretty poor way of learning, especially if you can train yourself not to feel these things. Plus, you may really benefit in some way from the action that’s inconsistent with your beliefs. So, the trick would be to get rid of this feeling without changing your beliefs or your actions, and this leads us to the third, and probably most common, method of resolution.
    3. Change perception of action
      • A third and more complex method of resolution is to change the way you view/remember/perceive your action. In more colloquial terms, you would “rationalize” your actions. For example, you might decide that the test you cheated on was for a dumb class that you didn’t need anyway. Or you may say to yourself that everyone cheats so why not you? In other words, you think about your action in a different manner or context so that it no longer appears to be inconsistent with your beliefs. If you reflect on this series of mental gymnastics for a moment you will probably recognize why cognitive dissonance has come to be so popular. If you’re like me, you notice such post-hoc reconceptualiztions (rationalizations) of behavior on the part of others all the time, though it’s not so common to see it in one’s self.
The Experiment

There have been 100s, if not 1000s, of experiments that have examined cognitive dissonance theory since the theorie’s inception, but the seminal experiment was published in 1959 (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959). This experiment is very interesting viewed within a psychological/historical context because it involved a direct test of a “mentalistic” theory versus a behaviorist theory. Cognitive dissonance theory was based on abstract/internal/mental concepts, which were, of course, anathema to the behaviorists. Festinger and Carlsmith set up an ingenious experiment which would allow for a direct test of cognitive dissonance theory versus a behavioral/reinforcement theory.

In this experiment all participants were required to do what all would agree was a boring task and then to tell another subject (who was actually a confederate of the experimenter) that the task was exciting. Half of the subjects were paid $1 to do this and half were paid $20 (quite a bit of money in the 1950s). Following this, all subjects were asked to rate how much they liked the boring task. This latter measure served as the experimental criterion/the dependent measure. According to behaviorist/reinforcement theory, those who were paid $20 should like the task more because they would associate the payment with the task. Cognitive dissonance theory, on the other hand, would predict that those who were paid $1 would feel the most dissonance since they had to carry out a boring task and lie to an experimenter, all for only 1$. This would create dissonance between the belief that they were not stupid or evil, and the action which is that they carried out a boring task and lied for only a dollar (see Figure 2). Therefore, dissonance theory would predict that those in the $1 group would be more motivated to resolve their dissonance by reconceptualizing/rationalizing their actions. They would form the belief that the boring task was, in fact, pretty fun. As you might suspect, Festinger’s prediction, that those paid $1 would like the task more, proved to be correct.


  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance, Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson.
  • Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203 – 210.

Psychology World was created by Richard Hall in 1998 and is covered by a creative commons (by-nc) copyright

Streets of Love - unconventional:


In California at the seaport of Oakland, an Israeli ship is being refused a berth. No one will load or unload. The writing is on the wall, Israel has worn out its welcome in the United States. Early on America pulled back its air defense ships that made up the real backbone of the Iron Dome. In response, the America’s Israeli controlled congress voted $270 million for Iron Dome “upgrades” that were less likely to disappear mysteriously.

Whether Obama has “grown a conscience” or is simply punishing Israel as a political enemy that has run a 6 year smear campaign against his presidency, survival for a democratic president depends on gaining the Jewish vote, which Obama does handily, while defeating the Israel lobby invariably aligned with republicans.

Few outside the United States have the remotest understanding of this anomaly, nor should they. It is, in actuality, quite insane.


Israel’s media, initially, carried no news of Hamas rockets hitting. All were misses, falling miles from cities or being blasted out of the sky. Nothing was reported of the advanced AEGIS radars that support the Iron Dome being pulled back by Israel’s shaky American allies.

America had relocated her AEGIS assets to the Black Sea. With those ships went the real “Iron Dome,” including the SM 3 interceptor missiles genuinely capable of intercepting missiles.

Israel’s “fall back” was to use the Raphael high energy COIL (Chemical/Oxygen/Iodine” Laser) system they were given by Boeing and Raytheon. That system had been developed as an airborne missile interception system to be used against Iran. Instead, they had mounted it on an aircraft for ground attack capabilities, another war crime, attacking civilians with a failed American weapon designed to down satellites. From New Eastern Outlook, Moscow:

“Reports, including photographic evidence reveal that Israel is using an energy weapon to attack targets in Gaza. The destructive beam, thought to be a high energy laser, is emitted from a plane identified as a Boeing KC707 “Re’em,” originally configured for Electronic Warfare.”

Originally posted on Kauilapele's Blog:

new_eastern_outlook_header_1I never post things about this “Israel Iron Dome” business. But a couple of points stood out in this, so I highlight them below, and place the article here for possible reading.

A point which really struck home, is the fact that many are not playing along with the “cabal” type game, especially regarding the Oakland port refusing a berth to an Israeli ship. Something is changing.

“OBAMA STEPS ASIDE… In California at the seaport of Oakland, an Israeli ship is being refused a berth. No one will load or unload. The writing is on the wall, Israel has worn out its welcome in the United States. Early on America pulled back its air defense ships that made up the real backbone of the Iron Dome. In response, the America’s Israeli controlled congress voted $270 million for Iron Dome “upgrades” that were less likely to disappear mysteriously.

“Whether Obama has…

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Welcome to in5d Esoteric, Metaphysical and Spiritual Database where you are never alone!

How The Soul Essence Of DNA Defines Our Physical Presence

Updated August 29, 2014 by in5d Alternative News

by Gregg Prescott, M.S.

Through the genetic manipulation of our DNA by the Anunnaki, we are only using 22 of the 64 codons in our DNA.

Codons are like light switches and most of them are turned off.

In the movie, “Lucy,” Morgan Freeman’s character (Professor Norman) asks the question, “What if there was a way of accessing 100% of our brains?  What would we be capable of?”

Perhaps if the remaining codons in our DNA were activated, we might know the answer…  Of course, the critics and those who rely on empirical data to back up a scientific hypothesis will argue that we use 100% of our brains, but that doesn’t explain intellectual anomalies such as Albert Einstein or Nikola Tesla, who were able to envision things that the common man or woman could not, nor does it explain how certain people can have a traumatic brain injury that unlocks a specific ability that they never had before, such as the examples in the following articles on In5D: The Boy With The Incredible Brain and Head Injury Turns Dropout Into Fractal Genius.

Near death experiences and DNA

For example, when a person has a near death experience (NDE), the soul leaves the body, yet the For example, when a person has a near death experience (NDE), the soul leaves the body, yet the DNA remains with the shell. If our previous lives and soul essence were all kept within the DNA of the body, then there would be no recollection of who you are or any of your previous lives upon leaving the body. DNA remains with the shell.  If our previous lives and soul essence were all kept within the DNA of the body, then there would be no recollection of who you are or any of your previous lives upon leaving the body.

While having an NDE, many people said that they had a galactic consciousness and innately knew everything about anything, yet were not allowed to bring back all of this knowledge upon returning to their bodies.

So, if the genetic DNA and the brain are still within the shell, yet the soul is able to know “everything about anything” upon leaving the body in a near death experience, then how important is our DNA on an etheric level?  It isn’t.


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What’s REALLY in a name?


You really should read the rest of the article and catch the last video of this article. Enjoy and may you grow in wisdom and consciousness.

Angel Lucci

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Published on Aug 3, 2014

“What you hear in this video is from the audiobook of “The Iron Web,” a novel I wrote years ago. (The printed book and audiobook are at These are the words of a fictional character in the book, and he says quite a bit more. And yes, the character is rather harsh in his condemnation of state-worship, but for a reason. If you have the story context of who is saying it, where, when, and why, some of it makes more sense. Many thanks to FreiwilligFrei for making this video.” – Larken Rose

Larken Rose is known for debunking the most dangerous superstition, Government. He is a Voluntaryist/Anarchist and a tax protester, as well as an author of several books. Larken promotes the concepts of self-ownership and a voluntary society, writing articles, giving talks and making videos available at his website;

To see more of Larken’s great videos, visit his YouTube Channel:

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Tajna Nicole Tesla

Life and times of Nikola Tesla, famous scientist whose inventions were stolen, but whose greatest contribution to mankind remain a mystery to this day.


Krsto Papic


Petar Bozovic, Orson Welles, Oja Kodar | See full cast and crew »


This motor is in harmony with nature.

- Nikolai Tesla

If you’re interested in Tesla’s motor and free-energy technology, then so some additional research online for ‘Quantum Energy Generator (QEG). You can start here if you’d like:

We Have Found the Perfect Way to Release Free Energy Technology to the People


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President Kennedy, The Fed and Executive Order 11110
By Cedric X

Executive Order 1110 gave the US the ability to create its own money backed by silver. …
On June 4, 1963, a little known attempt was made to strip the Federal Reserve Bank of its power to loan money to the government at interest. On that day President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order No. 11110 that returned to the U.S. government the power to issue currency, without going through the Federal Reserve. Mr. Kennedy’s order gave the Treasury the power “to issue silver certificates against any silver bullion, silver, or standard silver dollars in the Treasury.” This meant that for every ounce of silver in the U.S. Treasury’s vault, the government could introduce new money into circulation. In all, Kennedy brought nearly $4.3 billion in U.S. notes into circulation. The ramifications of this bill are enormous.
With the stroke of a pen, Mr. Kennedy was on his way to putting the Federal Reserve Bank of New York out of business. If enough of these silver certificats were to come into circulation they would have eliminated the demand for Federal Reserve notes. This is because the silver certificates are backed by silver and the Federal Reserve notes are not backed by anything. Executive Order 11110 could have prevented the national debt from reaching its current level, because it would have given the gevernment the ability to repay its debt without going to the Federal Reserve and being charged interest in order to create the new money. Executive Order 11110 gave the U.S. the ability to create its own money backed by silver.
After Mr. Kennedy was assassinated just five months later, no more silver certificates were issued. The Final Call has learned that the Executive Order was never repealed by any U.S. President through an Executive Order and is still valid. Why then has no president utilized it? Virtually all of the nearly $6 trillion in debt has been created since 1963, and if a U.S. president had utilized Executive Order 11110 the debt would be nowhere near the current level. Perhaps the assassination of JFK was a warning to future presidents who would think to eliminate the U.S. debt by eliminating the Federal Reserve’s control over the creation of money. Mr. Kennedy challenged the government of money by challenging the two most successful vehicles that have ever been used to drive up debt – war and the creation of money by a privately-owned central bank. His efforts to have all troops out of Vietnam by 1965 and Executive Order 11110 would have severely cut into the profits and control of the New York banking establishment. As America’s debt reaches unbearable levels and a conflict emerges in Bosnia that will further increase America’s debt, one is force to ask, will President Clinton have the courage to consider utilizing Executive Order 11110 and, if so, is he willing to pay the ultimate price for doing so?

Executive Order 11110 AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 10289

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, it is ordered as follows:
Section 1. Executive Order No. 10289 of September 19, 1951, as amended, is hereby further amended-
By adding at the end of paragraph 1 thereof the following subparagraph (j):
(j) The authority vested in the President by paragraph (b) of section 43 of the Act of May 12,1933, as amended (31 U.S.C.821(b)), to issue silver certificates against any silver bullion, silver, or standard silver dollars in the Treasury not then held for redemption of any outstanding silver certificates, to prescribe the denomination of such silver certificates, and to coin standard silver dollars and subsidiary silver currency for their redemption
and –
Byrevoking subparagraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 thereof.
Sec. 2. The amendments made by this Order shall not affect any act done, or any right accruing or accrued or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil or criminal cause prior to the date of this Order but all such liabilities shall continue and may be enforced as if said amendments had not been made.
John F. Kennedy The White House, June 4, 1963.
Of course, the fact that both JFK and Lincoln met the the same end is a mere coincidence.
Abraham Lincoln’s Monetary Policy, 1865 (Page 91 of Senate document 23.)
Money is the creature of law and the creation of the original issue of money should be maintained as the exclusive monopoly of national Government.
Money possesses no value to the State other than that given to it by circulation.
Capital has its proper place and is entitled to every protection. The wages of men should be recognised in the structure of and in the social order as more important than the wages of money.
No duty is more imperative for the Government than the duty it owes the People to furnish them with a sound and uniform currency, and of regulating the circulation of the medium of exchange so that labour will be protected from a vicious currency, and commerce will be facilitated by cheap and safe exchanges.
The available supply of Gold and Silver being wholly inadequate to permit the issuance of coins of intrinsic value or paper currency convertible into coin in the volume required to serve the needs of the People, some other basis for the issue of currency must be developed, and some means other than that of convertibility into coin must be developed to prevent undue fluctuation in the value of paper currency or any other substitute for money of intrinsic value that may come into use.
The monetary needs of increasing numbers of People advancing towards higher standards of living can and should be met by the Government. Such needs can be served by the issue of National Currency and Credit through the operation of a National Banking system .The circulation of a medium of exchange issued and backed by the Government can be properly regulated and redundancy of issue avoided by withdrawing from circulation such amounts as may be necessary by Taxation, Redeposit, and otherwise. Government has the power to regulate the currency and creditof the Nation.
Government should stand behind its currency and credit and the Bank deposits of the Nation. No individual should suffer a loss of money through depreciation or inflated currency or Bank bankruptcy.
Government possessing the power to create and issue currency and creditas money and enjoying the right to withdraw both currency and credit from circulation by Taxation and otherwise need not and should not borrow capital at interest as a means of financing Governmental work and public enterprise. The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of the consumers. The privilege of creating and issueing money is not only the supreme prerogative of Government, but it is the Governments greatest creative opportunity.
By the adoption of these principles the long felt want for a uniform medium will be satisfied. The taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest, discounts, and exchanges. The financing of all public enterprise, the maintenance of stable Government and ordered progress, and the conduct of the Treasury will become matters of practical administration. The people can and will be furnished with a currency as safe as their own Government. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity. Democracy will rise superior to the money power.
Some information on the Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve, a Private Corporation One of the most common concerns among people who engage in any effort to reduce their taxes is, “Will keeping my money hurt the government’s ability to pay it’s bills?” As explained in the first article in this series, the modern withholding tax does not, and wasn’t designed to, pay for government services. What it does do, is pay for the privately-owned Federal Reserve System.
Black’s Law Dictionary defines the “Federal Reserve System” as, “Network of twelve central banks to which most national banks belong and to which state chartered banks may belong. Membership rules require investment of stock and minimum reserves.”
Privately-owned banks own the stock of the Fed. This was explained in more detail in the case of Lewis v. United States, Federal Reporter, 2nd Series, Vol. 680, Pages 1239, 1241 (1982), where the court said:
Each Federal Reserve Bank is a separate corporation owned by commercial banks in its region. The stock-holding commercial banks elect two thirds of each Bank’s nine member board of directors.
Similarly, the Federal Reserve Banks, though heavily regulated, are locally controlled by their member banks. Taking another look at Black’s Law Dictionary, we find that these privately owned banks actually issue money:
Federal Reserve Act. Law which created Federal Reserve banks which act as agents in maintaining money reserves, issuing money in the form of bank notes, lending money to banks, and supervising banks. Administered by Federal Reserve Board (q.v.).
The FED banks, which are privately owned, actually issue, that is, create, the money we use. In 1964 the House Committee on Banking and Currency, Subcommittee on Domestic Finance, at the second session of the 88th Congress, put out a study entitled Money Facts which contains a good description of what the FED is:
The Federal Reserve is a total money-making machine.It can issue money or checks. And it never has a problem of making its checks good because it can obtain the $5 and $10 bills necessary to cover its check simply by asking the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Engraving to print them.
As we all know, anyone who has a lot of money has a lot of power. Now imagine a group of people who have the power to create money. Imagine the power these people would have. This is what the Fed is.
No man did more to expose the power of the Fed than Louis T. McFadden, who was the Chairman of the House Banking Committee back in the 1930s. Constantly pointing out that monetary issues shouldn’t be partisan, he criticized both the Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt administrations. In describing the Fed, he remarked in the Congressional Record, House pages 1295 and 1296 on June 10, 1932, that:
Mr. Chairman,we have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal reserve banks. The Federal Reserve Board, a Government Board, has cheated the Government of the United States and he people of the United States out of enoughmoney to pay the national debt. The depredations and the iniquities of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal reserve banks acting together have cost this country enough money to pay the national debt several times over. This evil institution has impoverished and ruined the people of the UnitedStates; has bankrupted itself, and has practically bankrupted our Government. It has done this through the maladministration of that law by which the Federal Reserve Board, and through the corrupt practices of the moneyed vultures who control it.
Some people think the Federal reserve banks are United States Government institutions. They are not Government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; and rich and predatory money lenders. In that dark crew of financial pirates there are those who would cut a man’s throat to get a dollar out of his pocket; there are those who send money into States to buy votes to control our legislation; and there are those who maintain an international propaganda for the purpose of deceiving us and of wheedling us into the granting of new concessions which will permit them to cover up their past misdeeds and set again in motion their gigantic train of crime. Those 12 private credit monopolies were deceitfully and disloyally foisted upon this country by bankers who camehere from Europe and who repaid us for our hospitality by undermining our American institutions.
The Fed basically works like this: The government granted its power to create money to the Fed banks. They create money, then loan it back to the government charging interest. The government levies income taxes to pay the interest on the debt. On this point, it’s interesting to note that the Federal Reserve act and the sixteenth amendment, which gave congress the power to collect income taxes, were both passed in 1913. The incredible power of the Fed over the economy is universally admitted. Some people, especially in the banking and academic communities, even support it. On the other hand, there are those, both in the past and in the present, that speak out against it. One of these men was President John F. Kennedy. His efforts were detailed in Jim Marrs’ 1990 book, Crossfire:
Another overlooked aspect of Kennedy’s attempt to reform American society involves money. Kennedy apparently reasoned that by returning to the constitution, which states that only Congress shall coin and regulate money, the soaring national debt could be reduced by not paying interest to the bankers of the Federal Reserve System, who print paper money then loan it to the government at interest. He moved in this area on June 4, 1963, by signing Executive Order 11,110 which called for the issuance of $4,292,893,815 in United States Notes through the U.S. Treasury rather than the traditional Federal Reserve System. That same day, Kennedy signed a bill changing the backing of one and two dollar bills from silver to gold, adding strength to the weakened U.S. currency.
Kennedy’s comptroller of the currency, James J. Saxon, had been at odds with the powerful Federal Reserve Board for some time, encouraging broader investment and lending powers for banks that were not part of the Federal Reserve system. Saxon also had decided that non-Reserve banks could underwrite state and local general obligation bonds, again weakening the dominant Federal Reserve banks.
A number of “Kennedy bills” were indeed issued – the author has a five dollar bill in his possession with the heading “United States Note” – but were quickly withdrawn after Kennedy’s death. According to information from the Library of the Comptroller of the Currency, Executive Order 11,110 remains in effect today, although successive administrations beginning with that of President Lyndon Johnson apparently have simply ignored it and instead returned to the practice of paying interest on Federal Reserve notes. Today we continue to use Federal Reserve Notes, and the deficit is at an all-time high.
The point being made is that the IRS taxes you pay aren’t used for government services. It won’t hurt you, or the nation, to legally reduce or eliminate your tax liability.
From The Final Call, Vol15, No.6, on January 17, 1996 (USA)

One of the most thorough examination of the Birth Certificate fraud which is one of the crimes committed against the Peoples of the Earth for hundreds of years.

Angel Lucci


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2nd Dark Age A-Coming


Very interesting Mr. “Bond”.



A Settlement Certificate, also known as a “Birth Certificate” since 1837, is an official document issued to validly recorded poor (paupers) granting them certain basic rights and entitlement to benefits in exchange for recognition of their status as being owned as “property” and lawful slaves, also known as indentured servants and bondsmen. A “settlement” therefore is equivalent to a voluntary slave plantation.

Origin of Settlement (Birth) Certificates

Under King Henry VIII of England and his Venetian/Magyar advisers, the first poor laws were promulgated around 1535 coinciding with the first official mandate requiring uniform record keeping by all Church of England parishes of births, deaths and marriages. The poor were considered the responsibility of the “Church” including ensuring they had ample work and did not starve to death as they were considered by default the property of the church.

Under Queen Elizabeth I of England, a set of measures which were introduced which had the effect of accelerating the disenfranchisement of land peasants into landless paupers. Under the Erection of Cottages Act 1588, peasants required local parish permission to erect dwellings whereas before the erection of a dwelling by a land peasant on their lord’s land was considered a “right”. As a result, the ranks of the landless poor, or “paupers” swelled.

Under Queen Elizabeth I of England, the laws concerning the administration and care of the “poor” were refined through the Poor Law (1601) which introduced a basic set of “rights” for the poor as well as the introduction of two “Overseers of the Poor” (Guardian) in each Parish, elected at Easter and funded through the first levy (tax) through local rates (now called “council taxes”) on property owning rate payers.

Under Charles II of England, the concept of “Settlements” as plantations of working poor controlled by the Church of England was further refined through the Settlement Act (1662) and Poor Relief Act (1662) including for the first time the issuance of “Settlement Certificates” equivalent to a “birth certificate, passport and social security” rolled into one document. A child’s birthplace was its place of settlement, unless its mother had a settlement certificate from some other parish stating that the unborn child was included on the certificate. However from the age of 7 upwards the child could have been apprenticed and gained a settlement for itself through called indentured service, or “voluntary slavery”. Also, the child could have obtained a settlement for itself by service by the time it was 16.

Under the “reforms” of the Settlement Act (1662) and Poor Relief Act (1662), no one was allowed to move from town to town without the appropriate “Settlement Certificate”. If a person entered a parish in which he or she did not have official settlement, and seemed likely to become chargeable to the new parish, then an examination would be made by the justices (or parish overseers). From this examination on oath, the justices would determine if that person had the means to sustain himself. The results of the examination were documented in an Examination Paper. As a result of the examination the intruder would then either be allowed to stay, or would be removed by means of what was known as a Removal Order, the origin of the modern equivalent of an “Eviction and Removal Notice” when a sheriff removes people from their home.

According to the various settlement acts from the 17th Century onwards until the introduction of Birth Certificates, the issue of a Settlement Certificate was considered a privilege, not a right. If a peasant wanted to move, the home parish could choose to issue a Settlement Certificate which then effectively became an indemnity insurance to the new parish if the pauper was unable to earn a living. A settlement certificate was only valid if it bore the seals of the overseers of both parishes and that of the local Justices and was not transferable. This is the same model of modern passports for citizens listed as “P” (Paupers or Peons) used today.

Due to the increase in the number of “poor”, in 1723 a new law was passed called the Workhouse Test Act (1723) in which those who wished to claim benefits and relief as poor now had to enter a “workhouse” being essentially a prison for men, women and children to perform some set work. To ensure that all poor were accounted and could be identified, new laws were also introduced to force the Paupers to wear a ‘P’ on their right shoulders as a mark of their status. This is both the origin of the “P” still placed as a mark on modern passports and other “official” documents and the “P” worn by prisoners from the 20th Century.

Beginning in 1773 with the Inclosure Act 1773, followed by the Inclosure Consolidation Act 1801, English Parliament effectively “privatized” massive amounts of common land for the benefit of a few, causing huge numbers of land peasants to become “landless paupers” and therefore in need of parish assistance. The Inclosure Acts are the foundation of Land Title as it is known today.

Because of the deliberate “legal” theft of land under parliamentary Inclosure laws of the late 18th and early 19th Century, the number of paupers dramatically increased. This led to the most awful and cruel laws being introduced to deliver to an elite few, the slave labor force needed for the industrial revolution through the Poor Law Amendment Act (1834) which effectively stated that the poor could not receive any benefit unless they were constantly “employed” in a workhouse prison. Thus, despite international treaties against slavery, the very worst slavery being “wage slavery” or “lawful slavery” was born whereby men, women and children lived in terrible conditions and were worked “to death”.

Beginning in 1834, a number of historic changes were introduced to the record keeping of births, deaths and marriages, the issuance of documents and the management of the “poor”:

(i) In 1834, British Parliament introduced the Poor Law Amendment Act (1834) which reorganized Church of England parishes into unions which would then be responsible for the poor in their area and administered by a Board of Poor Law Guardians, also known as the Board of Guardians. The clerks of Magistrates Courts still hold the power of a Clerk of the Board of Guardians; and

(ii) In 1835, the Municipal Corporations Act (1835) was introduced which effectively standardized the corporate model for towns and boroughs including making the municipality with elected officials responsible for data collection and service administration; and

(iii) In 1836, the Births and Deaths Registration Act (1836) was introduced which for the first time created the General Register Office and the requirement for uniform records of births, deaths and marriages across the Empire by Municipal Councils and Unions of Parishes. Thus on 1 July 1837, the Birth Certificate was formed as the successor of the Settlement Certificate for all “paupers” disenfranchised of their land birthright to be considered lawful (“voluntary”) slaves with benefits provided by the local parish/region underwritten by the Society of Lloyds as it is still today.

Beginning from 1871, further historic changes in the administration of “vital statistics” such as birth certificates and death certificates with the introduction of health districts or “sanitary districts”. The Local Government Act of 1871, Public Health Act 1872 and Public Health Act 1875 created a system of “districts” called Sanitary Districts governed by a Sanitary Authority responsible for various public health matters including mental health legally known as “sanity”. Two types of Sanitary Districts were created being Urban and Rural. While the sanitary districts were “abolished” in 1894 with the Local Government Act of 1894, the administration of the “poor” is still maintained in part under the concept of district health boards of Guardians including magistrates and other “Justices of the Peace”.

Since 1990 under the United Nations and the World Health Organisation (WHO) by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the system of issuing birth certificates as proof of a man or woman being a permanent member of the underclass has become an international system.

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Birth Certificate as proof one is born on the land